Diabetes which is medically referred as Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic disease caused by the inability of pancreas to secrete insulin. Insulin is a hormone, required for sugar metabolism and to control the blood sugar level. In case of diabetes body has the trouble in regulating the blood glucose levels. Diabetes is majorly classified into two types as Type 1 diabetes also known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes and type 2 diabetes.
Though type 1 Diabetes is the disorder of the immune system which can occur at any age, it is frequently diagnosed in children, adolescents and young adults. If it is found out in adults over 30 years of age, it is referred as Type 1.5 diabetes and is commonly termed as Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults or LADA.
If beta cells present in the endocrine glands responsible for the production of insulin is destroyed, it inhibits glucose metabolism and it stays in the blood which increases the level of blood sugar. Hence it is important to take insulin by the patients of type 1 diabetes to stay alive.
Symptoms Of Type 1 Diabetes
Some of the common or major symptoms of type 1 diabetes include;
Extreme hunger – since sugar metabolism does not take place with the lack of insulin, it is not possible for the body cells to acquire enough energy. It results in intense hunger which may continue even after intake of food. Without the action of insulin food never reaches the tissue.
Increased thirst in spite of continuous intake of water.
Frequent urination or polyuria – Due to enhanced thirst intake of water cannot be avoided and this leads to frequent urination or the feeling to urinate often. Accumulation of sugar in the blood stream pulls a lot of fluids from the tissues and it leaves the person extremely thirsty. Drinking water and to urinate later occurs more than usual.
Unexplained weight loss – In spite of eating heavily to get rid of hunger, weight loss is evident and sometimes it occurs at a rapid phase. As muscle tissues and fat stores do not get sufficient energy supply due to inhibition of sugar metabolism there is loss of strength which results in depletion of weight. Tissues shrink rapidly which results in weight loss.
Increased fatigue – Cells which do not get enough sugar supply are deprived of energy which causes the person to feel tired quickly and they become irritable soon.
Blurred vision – When the fluids are pulled out from the lenses of the eyes it may affect the ability of proper vision. If the sugar levels are high the fluids are pulled out from different body tissues including the eye lenses.
The above mentioned symptoms are often considered as the first signs of type1 diabetes and in advanced cases it may lead to rapid breathing, dryness of the skin and mouth, fruity odor in breath, fluid accumulation in face which is pronounced as flushed face, nausea or vomiting, stomach pain and several other symptoms also occur probably.
Those who take insulin regular have the chances of maintaining blood sugar levels but if the insulin level is increased it decreases the level of blood sugar. Symptoms of blood sugar vary from increased blood sugar and the common sign is extreme sweating.
Type 1 diabetes treatment starts quickly and if the symptoms are severe it is essential for the person to get admitted in the hospital for an effective and continuous treatment. Weekly check up is advised for those who are diagnosed with type 1 diabetes most recently and this is recommended until the blood sugar level is under control. Level of sugar in the blood is continuously monitored through blood and urine checkup.
If the basic steps of diabetes management are learned by patients it becomes most simple to manage the condition when the blood sugar comes to a stable level. Insulin supply is the most significant treatment for type 1 diabetes and it is injected under the skin and the dosage varies with sugar level of patients. From one shot of insulin to four shots are prescribed on the basis of blood sugar levels. The amount of sugar is also adjusted with regular exercise and proper diet. People with this type of diabetes have been identified to live for more than 85 years which is encouraging considering the death rate of the disease.